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Entries in Jordan (3)


Roman ruins in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria

The Dead Sea and Amman

The day after Petra we left for the Dead Sea. The shore of the Dead Sea is the lowest dry land in the world, at 396m below sea-level. It is quite interesting, because when plates are pulled apart they split to form three rifts which become deep trenches, then eventually seas/oceans. The centre of tearing of the African place, focused on Ethiopia, has split to form the Great African Rift Valley/Lake Victoria, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden. The Dead Sea lies in the continuation of the Red Sea rift (about 14km wide and 72km long). The desert lake has dried since then from the desert heat, so it is now so salty it is 33% solids (20x bromine of sea water, 15x magnesium, 10x iodine), and 'dead', since no fish can survive.

The Dead Sea was great, so much fun. We all went for a swim at the local beach, and bobbed around on the surface of the water. It was actually tough to stand up, since our legs floated up so well. I tried to work out how much lead I would need to scuba there, I am guessing about 60kg. The water was so salty it tasted vile and burnt our lips and eyes, but it was so much fun floating around that it was worth it. The salt was precipitating out on rocks and safety ropes in the water, which became sharp enough to cut my legs when I brushed past them, and I had really picked the wrong day to shave :) After floating, we covered each ourselves in Dead Sea mud (I got called naughty for slapping mud on Andy when he was trying to clean off), which was nice messy, gooey fun.

After the Dead Sea we drove to Amman, during the drive Michelle cut my hair with a Swiss Army knife, it turned out well even with the bumpy road. Amman has been continually occupied since 3500 BCE, called Rabbath Ammon ‘Great City of the Ammonites’, then Philadelphia after it was taken by Herod for Rome in 30 BCE. It fell to Persian Sassanians in 614 CE, and reduced in size and importance, only regrowing as the capital of Jordan.


The following day we drove to Jerash. Jerash became a major city under Alexander the Great (333 BCE), and was conquered by Pompey for Rome in 64 BCE, (when it was renamed Gerasa). Gerasa became a city of the Decapolis (a league of major commercial cities), reaching its peak in 3rd century CE with a population of 15 000 Romans. The ruins have now been restored are were magnificent to wander through, newly restored. 

 We entered the city through Hadrian’s Arch, built in 129 CE for the visit of Emperor Hadrian. The enterence leads to the main market place, a huge round paved area surrounded by columns (all still standing). Small stalls for butchers and merchants were arranged around the market place, and from it lead the Cardo maximus, the main street (with an underground sewage system). The city contained a Nymphaeum (public fountain), Hippodrome (seating 15 000 for chariot races), a Temple to Zeus (built 162 CE) and a Temple of Artemis (the Goddess of the hunt was the patron goddess of Jerash). The columns are the Temple of Artemis are famous as one is a moving column - it sways gently in the wind (I couldn't see the sway, but when I stuck my finger in a crack I could feel it being squashed). There was also a magnificent theatre, with the acoustics designed to allow everyone inside to clearly hear the person in the middle (with amplifiers surrounding the theatre, and all the design calculated to move the sound from the centre to the audience). They demonstrated the acoustics for us with an Arab marching band playing 'Yankie Doodle' on bagpipes, which was quite odd.

I enjoyed being in a city which invested so much in its public buildings, with beautiful carvings designed to last thousands of years.


In the afternoon we drove across the Syria. Syria was a similar history to Jordan, since Lebannon and Jordan were a part of Syria, except after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire France was given the mandate over Syria, rahter than the British (until independence after WWII). So now they have excellent desert pastries and people ask if I am French.

Before the rise of Islam, the chief religion here was Zoroastrianism, the worship of Ahura Mazda revealed by Zoroaster three or four thousand years ago. Under the Sassanians in the Middle East it was quite a savage religion, persecuting other religions and worshipping fire. It was lead by the Magi, about which Herodotus had to say; The Magi are a peculiar caste, quite different from the Egyptian priests and indeed from any other sort of person. The Egyptian priests make it an article of religion to kill no living creature except for sacrifice, but the Magi not only kill anything, except dogs and men, with their own hands but make a special point of doing so; ants, snakes, animals, birds – no matter what, they kill them indiscriminately. Well, it is an ancient custom, so let them keep it. They fled to India in the eighth century when they were persecuted during the Islamic conquest and conversion of the Middle East. Jadav Rana, the Hindu king of Sanjan, accepted them on the condition that they don’t try to convert anyone, so now they remain a very small religion (they still don’t proselytise). I think this humbling experience has been good for them, because they now focus on education and arriving at moral positions through self-reflection, so their religion has the highest literacy and tertiary education rate of any religion. Also, they firmly believe in the equality of all people, regardless of religion, race or gender, they are environmentally conscious, believe in charity, and condemn all oppression or cruelty towards people or animals.

Anyway, we didn't get to do much in Syria that day, because the border crossing took so long. We went to Damascus (Ash-Sham), the oldest continually inhabited city in the world (7000 years), in the Ghouta oasis on the Barada River. Damascus has been a captial for a long time, being a major city in the Persian, Greek and Roman Empires, then the Arab empire after it fell to Islam in 635 CE. In 1200 it was sacked by Ghengis Khan and the Mongols, then ruled by the Mamluks and Ottomans before world war I. We had dinner in the historic walled Old City in the centre, a great mezze of vegetarian food and excellent mint lemonade. The cafe was right by Umayyad Mosque, which is a bit of a floosy of religions, starting out as a Temple of Jupiter thousands of years ago, before converting to a Byzantine cathedral and then a mosque in 705 CE. It is where Saladin is buried. We went shopping in the souk (market), one of the best in the Middle East, an enormous network of covered shopping streets, and had Arab icecream, which was great :)

On a banner in the souk: From Syria the country of peace and loving to the aggressive Israel and ally America... We are in Syria and the country of self-estiem and home-bred. We refuse to your democracy after what we had seen happened in Iraq and Palastine and now your democracy build on peoples bodies which you bombed on civilians innocents, and when the matter reached the council of security in the United Nations and how you used the rejection right (the veto) to save Israel for only a suspicious matter, and how American pushed the council of security to issue a decision against Syria followed by new decision even Syria executed the first one, but the Syrian people not afraid what ever the difficulties could be, and they are resistant by leadership dearest the President Bashar Al-Assad.


Yesterday we paid a flying visit to Lebanon. We visited Baalbek first, which contains an ancient temple to the Phoenician god Baal (Baalbek means City of Baal). Baalbek was renamed Heliopolis (City of the Sun, it has 300 sunny days a year on average) by the ancient Greeks), and Baal was turned into Jupiter (and the temple converted) by the Romans. Baalbek also has later built temples to Venus, the Goddess of Love, and Bacchus, the God of Wine (who alone of the Roman gods has no gender). The temple was magnificent, enormous stones rising up to look over the snow covered mountains. It contains the famous six columns of Baalbek, which have never fallen over the 2000 they have stood there (since they were imported from Aswan in Egypt, being shipped to Beirut and then rolled 1000km through the mountain passes to Baalbek), with the Lion head gargoyles overlooking the site. Baalbek has the largest carved stones in the world, three enormous sandstone pieces at 100000 tonnes each, a fourth was carved, but at 120,000 tonnes was too heavy to shift, remaining in the quarry as The Stone of the Pregnant Woman.

Driving over the pass to Beirut, I was delighted to regain my hearing in my left ear, which had been gone since Dehab. I guess I just needed negative pressure. Beirut was great, originally known as Beryte, a modest port in Phoenician times (2000 BCE) which rose during Roman times with one of the first three Schools of Law. The city was largely destroyed during the civil war, but has been recently rebuilt. Now the city if obviously rich, with the main streets looking like they belong in New York, and expensive cars driving around. Yet there were still bombed out buildings that have been left, the old surviving churches have bullet holes in them, and the beggar children have no hands.

Our guide left us in Beirut, so I lead Andy, Katho, Tamara, Ruth and Ken on a list of highlights that I wanted to see. Andy and Katho made up a theme song to 'Map Man', and we got to see Downtown, which was a beautiful cafe district (we had icecream). We saw a Knights Hospitaller Church converted to a mosque a thousand years ago, St George's Cathedral, the Grand Serile (an enormous Ottoman era building) and the Roman bathes. The city was very friendly, when we looked lost we had people coming up to us to offer directions, they all chatted for awhile. Katho asked for directions from one guy, who asked if we could ask again in Arabic or French, because his English wasn't very good, and a security guard ended up showing us to the Roman bathes. Tamara said it was the second best Roman bathes she had seen (after Bath), and told us how the stone pillar in the bath were built to support the floor of the sauna. The fires would have been lit beneath, and every night the slaves would have to crawl under the floor to clear out the ash.


Today we drove from Damascus to Palmyra, stopping at the Bagdad Cafe near the Iraqi border. Palmyra (Tadmor) was an Assyrian Caravan town 4000 years ago (built on an oasis 200km from the Euphrates River, vital as a watering hole in the desert crossing), and an important outpost in the Greek Empire. It was annexed by Rome in 217 CE, and became amazingly wealthy through taxing trade, with a population of over 200 000 people. As the most eastern part of the Roman empire it was only tenuously held, and when Zanobia became ruler of Palmyra in 267 CE after her husband Odenathus suspiciously died, she claimed descent from Cleopatra and rose up against Rome. She had early success, but the city was sacked by Emperor Hadrian in 273 CE, and has since been buried in sand.

We first visited Fakhredin al Maany Citadel, which was built only 800 years ago after the Islamic conquest of the region. It was a lovely little castle, I wandered around it by myself, poking into small passageways and admiring the view over Palmyra from the highest towers, cheering me up a lot. The castle was extended about 300 years ago, by a noble with visions of independence from the Ottomans. He made peace with them eventually, and the Sultan invited him and his sons to Constantinople to seal the peace, then hung them.

The city itself was amazing. It isn't strictly Roman, being rather Nabataean under Roman rule, with the Nabataean fusion of styles. It was an enormous city, with a 6km wall surrounding it, and a 1.3km main street, lined with columns (many of which are still standing). Only 30% has been uncovered from the sand, with the work still underway, but they have already revealed a Senate, bathes, temples and a small theatre. We saw the columns with Zanobia's titles carved on them, with one of her titles (Empress?) removed by the Romans after her defeat. The main street has an unusual double arch at the end, where the street needs to turn to the Temple of Bell (Roman architecture likes straight streets, so two archways were built, each perpendicular with the road they faced, and slight askew from each other, to give the impression of a straight road).

The Temple of Bell was very impressive, still largely intact. Bell/Baal was the most important God in the Palmyrene pantheon), although Zanobia was also a convert of Mani, the Babylonian prophet (210-276 CE) who formed the major religion Manichaeism which tried to peacefully fuse together Christianity, Buddhism, Judaisim and Zoroastrianism into a pacifist religion (which lasted a thousand years before dying out). The Temple was converted to Jupiter under Roman rule, and later used as Church and Mosque, with fresco of Gabriel and St George, and a mark cut to indicate the direction of Mecca. The temple gate was impressive, carved with olives (the symbol of fertility), grapes (the symbol of immortality) and poppy (the symbol of medicine). The whole complex looked pockmarked, as the Ottomans cut out the rock to extract the bronze dowls used in the construction. A really wonderful site...



A rose-red city, half as old as time (actually Burgon retracted the ‘rose-red’ afterwards, when he visited and thought it was more salmon-pink).

I spent the entire day wandering through Petra with Tamara. The ancient city was beautiful and wonderful. It was built by the Nabataeans when they moved from north-western Arabia to southern Jordan around the 3rd century BCE. They built Petra to control the spice, silk and slave trade routes through Middle East. It was a thriving empire, ruling most of the Middle East until 106 CE when it was conquered by the Romans. This was only just found out, when a letter from a Roman solider to his wife in Egypt was discovered, talking about his time in Petra. The Romans had to cut off the water supply to the city and siege it for three years before they could conquer it. Once the Romans conquered Petra they shifted the trade routes through Palmyra, but Petra was still lived in until 555 CE, when a massive earthquake destroyed most of the residential caves (but left the tombs intact).

Petra is built in a series of valleys through craggy faulted sandstone. Gentle hills hit steep cliffs at the edge of Petra, we walked in along the 1.2km long, 2m wide siq (a rock cleft created by an earthquake). The Nabateans were a very technologically advanced people, with hydraulic engineering, iron smelting and copper refining. Along the walls of the siq were two troughs (which used to be covered with clay lids), one to pipe water into the city, and one to pipe sewage out. At intervals there were stairs up to the pipe, where sewage traps were placed to keep the system clean. The sandstone walls are very colourful, mostly red, but with swirls of green and yellow, where the dominant oxide changes from iron to copper or sulphur. There were icons to the gods of trade carved out along the route, and a fossilised fish in the wall at one point. The road through still retains the original Roman paving in places, with large rounded pavestones. At several points offshots of the siq were damned, the original damns were destroyed by earthquakes, but the Nabataeans used them to control the winter floods.

As the siq ends, the Treasury (Al-Khazneh) peaks through the gap, and we came out to the beautiful facade of the tomb to a Nabataean king 56 BCE. The facade is 30m wide and 43m tall, and is beautifully carved straight out of the mountain in a fusion of Nabataean with Hellenistic, Egyptian, Roman and Persian influences. The carvings are beautifully intact (the carvers started at the top and worked down, so as not to destroy their work), except for the central cylinder, which locals thought was filled with Egyptian or pirate treasure (hence they called it the Treasury), and tried to open by shooting their rifles at it, and a few of the gods which were obliterated by Christians. The actual tomb inside the massive facade was quite small, the opposite of the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, with no facade and elaborate chambers carved into the mountains.

Past the Treasury we walked along the Street of Facades, with rows of Nabataean tombs carved into the mountain, each with a stairwell carved on top (the symbol of eternal life). Past the Street of Facades we entered the main residential valley, with hundreds of small houses, each carved out of the mountain. The entire mountain face with peppered with doorways, each with a carving of a stairwell above. From the residential valley was a long colonnaded street, with columns running along the road, and the ruins of shops and stores that used to sell their wares here. The road runs to the amphitheatre, which was carved out as a meeting place for business and religion in the 1st century CE, seating 3000 people, then expanded under Roman rule to seat 7000 for entertainment.

From the amphitheatre we walked several kilometres and climbed up the 800 steps to get to the Monastery (Ad-Deir), another amazing tomb facade (or a temple, it isn't sure). We walked back and visited the Lion Triclinium, Al-Habis Fortress (built by the Crusaders when they controlled Petra) and the Royal Tombs. The Royal Tombs used to be similar to the Treasury and Monastery, but are more eroded, leaving less detail, but still the imposing structures. The sandstone was impressively coloured in this region, such that some facades looked like polished marble, or abstract Aboriginal rock paintings, with the brightest swirls of colour meandering across the surface. I spent all my money on my first souvenir in the Middle East (and probably last), three old coins found at Petra, an Ottoman Turk coin (maybe 500 years old), a Roman coin (1500 years old), and a 2000 year old Nabataean coin.

On the way back we climbed up to the High Place of Sacrifice, with spectacular views of Petra and the mountains, and a sacrificial alter and table for religious ceremonies.

Turkish baths

Coming back from Petra I went straight in for a Turkish bath. We started out with a steam for half an hour, very different from a Banya or Sauna since it is not as hot, but so steamy you can only see about 50cm. It was glorious to feel the sweat pouring out, especially after eight solid hours of hiking. Then I lay on a heated marble slab for ten minutes, followed by a shower and a scrub by a Jordanian guy using a cleaning glove. After the scrub came a spa, which was too hot, and made me feel a little ill (I had to have a lie down because I felt like fainting), another shower and a massage (which I don't like, but everyone else loved).



Yesterday we crossed into Jordan. While the day was painfully slow (waiting for immigration and the ferry across the Gulf of Aqaba), it does feel amazing to now be in a place with such history, in the Arabian peninsular, the very cradle of civilisation. Jordan saw the rise and fall of all the great empires, first the various Persian and Mesopotamian empires that fluctuated across Arabia, then the Greek empire, after Jordan was conquered by Alexander the Great in 333 BCE. When Alexander the Great died his wife was pregnant. His generals got together to discuss the fate of his empire, and decided to wait to see if the child was a boy or girl. A boy would get the empire intact, a girl and the generals would split it between them. Ptolemy, the general who took Egypt once the daughter was born also took Jordan. The Jordan region was later ruled by the Persian Seleucids and Sassanians before the Turkish Byzantines took over, and was then conquered by Islamic empires in 7thcentury, first the Umayyad Empire, then the Abbasids, Fatimids and Seljuk Turks (in 1037 CE). The region was captured in 1099 during Pope Urban II’s Crusades, and recaptured in the 12thcentury by Nur ad-Din, Saladin and the Mamluks. Jordan was ruled by the Ottoman Turks from 1516 until WWI, where the Turks fought with Germany, prompting England to send Lawrence of Arabia to convince the Arabs to rise up against the Turks on the promise of independence after the war. They did, but England broke the promise, and ruled Transjordan as a League of Nations colony until after WWII, when it finally became independent.

Wadi Rum

Last night was painful with a cold desert camp and an ear-nose-throat infection, but I got to wake up in the Wadi Rum, the desert valley where Lawrence of Arabia was based. He got first class Honours for his thesis on Crusader Architecture. This morning was spent on a jeep safari across the Wadi Rum. The desert is a yellow sandy desert between barren mountains, but the unusually heavy rains recently have caused startlingly bright green plants to blossom from the sand. When the hills roll just so, the plants line up and the desert looks beautiful and green.

We drove to a cleft in a mountain crag, squeezed in through the siq and found a 2500 year-old Persian map carved into a stone table, outlining water pools and tracks through the desert. We then drove through to see some natural rock bridges, Wadak Rock Bridge, Umm Fruth Rock Bridge and Burdah Rock Bridge, which I looked at and Michelle climbed. We saw a few camels, and some normadic Bedouin with herds of goats. There was much for the goats to eat right now, with the rains, and they have some very clever ways to survive the dry years. One of the mountains we saw rising out of the desert contained an 18m deep stone well, craved straight into the mountain. The entire mountain was then landscaped with funnels and walls to divert all rainflow into the well. I walked up and down a tall sand dune (very tough), Hudson would be proud of Michelle for following the Wiggles advice and running up and then rolling down the sand dune.

Petra tomorrow.